This report attempts to offer fundamentals in teacher training and development in the United States. The report is structured around the following five components designed in the form of questionnaires: (1) Teacher education programs which involve entry requirements, training curriculum, and exit standards; (2) teacher certification requirements; (3) teacher recruitment requirements; (4) continuing education and support for beginning teachers; and (5) providers and governance of teacher education and certification. One of the most striking findings is that while entry requirements for teacher education are flexible, if not downplaying, across the states, the curriculum places a particular focus on the subject area content courses and, more importantly, on coursework in education and pedagogical skills, together with a long period of in-school student teaching, as prerequisites for graduation. Let alone such practice-based exit requirements, the quality of prospective teachers is checked upon by teacher licensure testing and further empowered by regular induction programs and professional development with an ultimate goal of meeting the eleven professional standards for teachers. With these, the report reveals systematic differences in the practices of teacher education programs, certification, and professional development, among other things, in the United States as compared with those in Vietnam. Thus, it may leave some room for consideration.


Over almost the past two decades, significant attention has been given to U.S. states’ policies governing the supply and quality of teachers. Strong debate, together with legislative initiatives, has focused on the entry requirements and higher standards, the need for nationwide standards in licensure testing, the quality of teacher education programs, alternate routes into teaching, academic requirements, induction programs and hiring, etc. In one way or another, any one of these issues has been viewed as a root cause or possible solution to the inadequate teacher quality and consequent student performance. Thus far much effort has been made to bring about changes in the aforementioned issues, it is hard, however, to define a typical framework that involves similarities in teacher education in the United States since program specifics and requirements vary widely within the context of each state and academic institutions.

This report endeavors to provide fundamentals in teacher training and development in the United States. The report gears its priority to the analysis of five components that help address the relevant questions of concern about teacher preparation in U.S. higher education. These include teacher education programs, teacher certification, teacher recruitment requirements, continuing education and support for beginning teachers, and providers and governance of teacher education and certification.


1.1. Entry Requirements

For undergraduate Level

What are the requirements for entry into undergraduate teacher education programs?

There is wide variation across U.S. states and higher education institutions in entry standards for undergraduate education programs and in their enforcement. In some instances students may begin teacher education coursework upon enrolling at the undergraduate institution. In other cases, prospective education students must complete two years of general or liberal arts studies and then apply for admission into the teacher education program. Some institutions require a minimum college general point average (GPA) or high school record. In addition, prospective students have to pass computer-based basic academic tests, known as Praxis I, to measure academic skills in reading, writing and mathematics. These tests are designed to provide comprehensive assessments that measure the skills and content knowledge of candidates before entering teacher preparation programs. In fact, a recent survey found that a majority of states require an exam for entry (Educator Recruitment & Retention Task Force, 2015). A few states, apart from Praxis I tests, may require recommendations, interviews, and experience working with learners as requirements for entry. However, these requirements are not popular in states that fall far short of teachers.

For graduate Level

What are the requirements for entry into graduate teacher education programs?

Graduate-level teacher education programs in the United States generally require at least a bachelor’s degree in education. Organizations responsible for reviewing and approving teacher education curriculum belong to independent national organizations and state statutory committees. Other admission requirements may include state certification in elementary, middle level, or secondary education, evidence for active engagement in classroom teaching, letters of recommendations, and a minimum undergraduate grade point average (GPA) of 2.5, or 3.0, overall and 3.0 in the academic major. In case, candidates who did not earn an adequate GPA in their major in undergraduate programs will be asked to complete additional courses in that major at host institutions.

1.2. Teacher Education Curriculum

What courses or curriculum are required in teacher education programs? What is the balance between subject area content courses and courses in education and pedagogy? What are the differences between undergraduate and graduate programs? Who determines the requirements?

In the United States, the curriculum content of teacher education programs is determined by individual teacher training institutions, within the context of state and national accreditation policies. There are similarities across institutions, however. In addition to subject area content courses, institutions typically require coursework on education theory and pedagogy, and student teaching experience. Courses in special education, health and nutrition, and computer science may also be required.

A typical undergraduate teacher education program might consist of 120 credit hours (the average required for graduation from most undergraduate liberal arts programs), or 134 credits (required to complete an undergraduate teacher education program). On average, 51 credits of general studies, 38 credits of major credits (includes courses in certification teaching subject area), 28 credits of professional studies (includes school, college, or department of education courses), and 14 clinical credit hours (includes student teaching and other field-based experiences) are required to complete initial preparation for school teaching. The curriculum is accredited by independent national organizations and state statutory committees.

Typical courses in a teacher preparation program are listed as follows:

• Advanced Processes and Acquisition of Reading

• Best Practices in Teaching

• Student Care Management & Admin

• Classroom Management

• Clinical Practice

• Clinical Teaching

• Cultural Perspectives in Education

• Diagnosing and Correcting Reading Difficulties

• Discipline and Classroom Management

• Educating Exceptional Students

• Educational Psychology

• Foundations for Early Childhood Development

• Human Growth and Development

• Instructional Assessment

• Instructional Technology

• Integrated Literacy

• Introduction to Teacher Certification

• Pedagogy of Language Arts

• Pedagogy of Math

• Pedagogy of Reading

• Pedagogy of Science

• Pedagogy of Social Studies

• Primary Education

• Schooling in America

• Supervised Demonstration Teaching

  • Elementary and middle school education or secondary education
  • Teaching Special Populations

In addition to courses that relate to candidates’ major and minor, coursework on education and pedagogical skills is required. The specific classes students need to take will depend on whether they are getting certified in elementary, middle, secondary, postsecondary, special education, or another area. Regardless of the type of certification, there are certain types of coursework that every prospective teacher needs to take:

  • Learner’s development or psychology: These courses will help future teachers better understand the minds of learners and how they develop.
  • Curriculum and instructional design: These courses will help future teachers how to develop and write curricula and lesson plans for their classes.
  • Methods: Teaching methods courses focus on the practice of teaching or pedagogy, including how to explain and demonstrate concepts, how to lecture, and how to hold an effective discussion.
  • Assessment: In courses on assessment practices, prospective teachers will learn how to assess student learning by creating tests, using oral exams, designing projects, and other techniques.
  • Special Education: Whether or not prospective teachers are pursuing special education certification, they will likely be required to take some coursework in this area. Even general education teachers must understand special education to some extent.

For master’s students, they may be required to research and present a project, while at the same time taking courses that teach wide skill set, including:

  • Education philosophy
  • Learning and cognition
  • Psychology of teaching
  • Critical thinking
  • Instructional proficiency
  • Curriculum theory and development

Student teaching experience

What kinds of classroom experiences are required? What is the nature and duration of these requirements?

In the United States, all teacher programs include practical teaching experience as a final component in teacher education curriculum, often completed during the final year of study. The required duration of the student teaching experience varies by state as well as by the type of teaching license the candidate wishes to pursue. However, nearly all programs will require at least one semester (15 weeks) of student teaching and program specifics vary by state and institution. Some institutions may require a full year at one school (CAEP, 2013a).

There are two types of practical experiences for teacher candidates: field experiences and student teaching or other in-school practical experiences. Field experiences normally consist solely of observations and are required by most states prior to student teaching. Other prerequisites for student teaching may include the completion of specific subject area content courses and coursework, and an adequate GPA. A university faculty member and a classroom teacher, or the school principal, typically supervises a student teacher. Student teachers may first spend time in the school observing classes and assisting teachers. They are then paired with an experienced teacher, who likely is paid for assuming the supervisory role. Student teaching evaluation practices also vary by state, but are typically shared among several individuals, including a university faculty member, an experienced teacher, and sometimes the principal of the school.  

1.3. Exit Requirements

What requirements must be met to complete the teacher education program? Who determines these requirements?

In the United States, exit standards for teacher education programs vary by state and institution, and are generally determined at the institutional level. By looking at the curriculum, exit standards typically are also required to include such things as an adequate GPA, completion of required subject area content courses and coursework, and student teaching. For master’s students, apart from these requirements, they may, depending on each state and respective institution, have to research and present a project and have an adequate GPA of the required coursework for mater’s program as discussed previously.


2.1. Initial Certification

What are the requirements for the initial certification of teachers? Are tests used? Who sets the standards? For how long is the certificate valid?

With all the exit standards already in place, candidates cannot enter the teaching profession at any level unless they get certified by their respective state through the passage of a teacher licensing examination, which is known as Initial Certification. Most states award a professional teaching certificate after completion of an approved program of required courses, student teaching experiences, criminal background checks, and successful passage of the state teacher licensing examination. States set their own cut scores on these examinations. The teacher licensing exam used by most states is the Praxis Series—the Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers developed by the Educational Testing Service. In most states, the Praxis Series for initial certification consists of two parts to measure comprehensive assessment of teaching candidates’ standards: an academic skills assessment (Praxis I), known as the General Knowledge Tests, which measure knowledge and skills in essay writing, the English language, reading, and mathematics; an assessment of content knowledge (Praxis II), known as the Subject Area Test, specific to the content area(s) in which the candidate desires to teach (Masters, G., 2012). In some states, prospective teachers may also required to take the Professional Education Exam (Praxis III), which measures pedagogical knowledge such as lesson planning and the selection of appropriate evaluation instruments.  

Once all exams have been successfully passed and all other requirements as mentioned above have been met, the candidate can qualify for the Initial Certificate, typically valid for two years. In some states, the professional certificate is not renewable. After expiration, teachers must apply for a standard or regular certificate and face additional requirements—usually some type of performance-based assessment and a specified number of classroom teaching hours.

2.2. Advanced Certification

Is certification beyond the initial level available? Is it required or voluntary? How is it obtained? What incentives are offered for teachers who pursue advanced certificates?

Advanced certification in the United States is voluntary, offered by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), a voluntary professional certification board. Key components include candidate’s assembly of a portfolio and participation in on-demand tasks at assessment centers. Some states also offer a master teacher certificate, a voluntary certification issued to teachers demonstrating advanced competency and achievement. In some jurisdictions, NBPTS certification may be a prerequisite for a master teacher certification. This type of advanced certificate is usually held in conjunction with a professional license and often extends the validity of the professional license. Master teachers often provide mentoring to other teachers and play roles in curriculum development and other leadership activities.

Incentives for achieving advanced certification vary by state, but usually include salary increases or bonuses and promotions.

2.3. Alternative Certification

Are there ways for individuals to become teachers outside of traditional teacher education programs? How do these operate?

In response to critical teacher shortages in the United States, often in low-income school districts and in certain fields, all states and the District of Columbia offer alternative teacher certification programs. According to a 2012 survey by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 14.6% of teachers leading classrooms in public schools entered teaching through an alternative pathway (NCES, 2014). The alternative certification route typically provides on-the-job training to college graduates who are placed in teaching jobs and offered the necessary coursework, support, time, and supervision required for full certification. This training ranges from intensive summer programs to year-round programs that mirror regular teacher education programs. In many cases, eligible candidates can also complete the teacher preparation alternative certification online and receive interactive tutoring and support from experienced professionals in the field of education. Online preparation programs have grown more and more popular, with over 6,000 new educators graduating from online programs each year (USA Today, August 8, 2012). Most often, prospective teachers pursuing alternative certification have a bachelor’s degree in a subject area (not in education), such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), but have neither taken any education courses nor done any student teaching. Requirements for full licensure vary widely across states, depending on regional needs and local resources. However, most states require that alternative route candidates achieve a passing score on state examinations and take additional coursework (composed of student development or psychology, curriculum and instructional design, methods, assessment, and special education as mentioned previously) before a teaching credential is issued.

Alternative teacher certification programs are growing in popularity. For example, in states such as Texas and California nearly one-third of their new teachers and in New Jersey over 40% of new teachers are prepared in alternative route programs (NCEI, 2009). According to the report of National Center for Alternative Certification (NCAC), in 2010, there were approximately 600 alternate route teacher preparation programs in 48 states and the District of Colombia, and over 500,000 teachers graduated from alternate route programs since 1980 (NCAC, 2010). This tendency presented the direct result of many states’ growing demand to use them to increase their pool of teachers from under-represented cultural groups; meet the staffing needs of urban and high-poverty schools; and attract mid-career professionals to teaching by avoiding the lengthy and arguably cumbersome certification process. A number of such programs exist, such as Teach for America, Troops to Teachers, and Transition to Teaching.


Who is responsible for recruiting teachers? What are the criteria?

In the United States, schools and school districts are responsible for recruiting and hiring teachers. The size of these schools and school districts ranges from very small to very large, resulting in great differences in hiring needs and hiring processes. The system for recruiting and hiring teachers is not universal and has been characterized as fragmented by policy bodies like the National Commission for Teaching and America’s Future. The most common hiring criteria are completion of an appropriate university degree (also including an adequate GPA of subject area content courses and coursework as well as student teaching experience), subject matter specialization, professional certificate or equivalent, demonstration of communication skills, proper attitude, and interviews.

In most states, upon having been recruited, teachers earn the right, after an average probationary period of three years, to continue teaching in their school districts. It is very difficult to terminate a tenured teacher, and this action usually requires proof of misconduct (Wixom, 2016).


4.1. Beginning Teacher Induction

Are there support programs for new teachers? How do they operate?

In much of the United States, new teachers become oriented to their school when they first start teaching. These orientations tend to last, at the most, a few days on a periodical basis throughout the year. Many school districts also offer structured support programs for beginning or first year teachers. These systematic efforts to support beginning teachers are known as induction programs and may involve a mentor or experienced teacher working with the beginning teacher.

There is a wide variety in induction program policies and components, however. According to a recent policy report conducted by New Teacher Center (NTC), 27 states required some type of new teacher support with some dedicated funding for teacher induction programs and a majority of states have policies in place to structure or guide teacher-mentor selection. Twenty-three states require or encourage release time for mentor teachers to conduct classroom observations and provide support during the school day. Twelve states establish a minimum amount of weekly or annual mentor contact time for beginning teachers. Most induction programs address three key elements: (1) classroom observations of and by beginning teachers; (2) formative assessment of or feedback on teaching from mentors; and (3) participation in a professional learning community or beginning educator peer network. Though induction programs for new teachers are voluntary, twenty-four states require new teachers to complete or participate in an induction or mentoring program for professional teaching certification (NTC, 2016).

4.2. Professional Development

Are there additional educational programs or opportunities for practicing teachers? Are they required or voluntary? Are there incentives for participation?

In the United States, some states issue a life teaching credential, and all professional development after that is up to the employer and/or the certificated staff member. Other states issue a permanent credential that must be verified periodically by the employer to ensure that the teacher has met the school district’s professional development requirements. Other states require verification of professional development for renewal of the certificate.

For decades, professional development programs in the United States largely have been organized by individual schools or districts and, typically, in the form of workshops scattered throughout the school year, on a wide variety of topics. In some districts and states, workshops might precede the school year, particularly when a major new program is being introduced. A recent NCES survey of teachers on their professional development activities discovered the following topics, such as curriculum and performance standards, with educational technology integration, subject-area study, new instructional methods, and student performance assessment being the next most popular topics. Other common professional development topics concerned addressing the needs of disabled or limited-English proficient students, encouraging community involvement, classroom management and student discipline, addressing the needs of students of diverse backgrounds, engaging experienced teachers in professional development activities concerning in-depth study of their subject area or classroom management, program improvement activities to a moderate or great extent, school administration support in applying what was learned to a moderate or great extent, additional training to a moderate or great extent, and teaching initiatives to use to a moderate or great extent, etc (NCES, 2016).

1.3. Professional Standards for Teachers

How many professional standards for school teachers? What domains are involved? How is each standard categorized?

In the United States, with a view to ensuring the quality of school teachers, a rubrics system of professional standards for teachers is established, involving teacher preparation, district induction programs, professional development programs, and the school district teacher evaluation. This system aligns with 11 standards which are typically grouped into the following four domains: The Learner and Learning (Standards One, Two, and Three); Content Knowledge (Standards Four and Five); Instructional Practice (Standards Six, Seven, and Eight); and Professional Responsibility (Standards Nine, Ten, and Eleven). The elements of each standard are divided into three categories: Performances, Essential Knowledge, and Critical Dispositions (see Index for details).


Who is responsible for teacher education and certification? What aspects are regulated?

Across the states in the United States, teacher education programs are provided by multidisciplinary institutions within which, typically, a college of education is an affiliate though are a small number of only-teacher education institutions. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), as of 2011, there had been 1,624 educator preparation providers (CAEP, 2013b). Most are four-year undergraduate programs, but some five-year programs exist that add a fifth year to a standard undergraduate liberal arts program. Colleges of education are accredited as well as governed by accreditation authorities for teacher education and certification. However, the United States has a decentralized system of teacher education and certification, in that each state is responsible for initial credentialing of its teachers. Some states refer to this initial credential process as certification. Certification requirements vary greatly across the states, depending on local needs and available resources. However, there are probably more commonalities than differences in state teacher education and certification systems. This is in part due to the fact that during 2013, the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) became the new unified accrediting body for educator preparation, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. As the accreditor for educator preparation providers, CAEP is accountable to the public, the states, policymakers, and professionals in the field of educator (CAEP, 2013b). These accreditation authorities specify frameworks such as standards for entry and exit, the required areas of study, professional skills to be addressed, and the minimum number of days of practicum. Successful completion of such a course then allows the graduate to be registered or licensed to enter the teaching profession. However, additional requirements for registration or licensure, including standardized tests, have been in place in the US for a considerable time (Mawdsley and Cumming, 2011: 25).


Ensuring the quality of teachers has been one of the focal points on the U.S. educational policy-making agenda. This great need did call into question the status of teacher education programs, certification, professional development, teacher compensation policy, and governing bodies of teacher education and certification. As a result, changes in the five aforementioned components have been made and contributed greatly to the improvement of teacher education and training, and, respectively, in-school student performance over the past decade, especially since President Obama’s Educational Reform Plan commencing in 2010.[1] Of a particular note to such a development are a practice-based curriculum, higher exit standards, teacher-quality licensure testing and regular induction programs as well as professional development, which, taken together, align with the eleven professional standards for teachers.

As part of the search for successful approaches to teacher education and training in the United States, it may be helpful for Vietnamese institutions of education to learn some extent from the U.S. teacher education models in place. This involves creative and energetic solutions that need to begin soon and be sustained for many years to come. Urgent steps to be taken lie in reconsideration of the existing training curriculum, duration of prospective teachers’ internship, exit requirements, certification, and teachers’ professional development in Vietnamese institutions of education./.  




1. CAEP (2013a), Annual Report to the public, the states, policymakers, and the education profession. Washington, DC: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. Available at <>

2. CAEP (2013b), Policy Manual. Washington, DC: Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation, CAEP Website. Available at


3. Educator Recruitment & Retention Task Force (2015), Education Retention and Recruitment Report, prepared by the Arizona Department of Education Educator Retention and Recruitment Task Force, January 2015. Available at <>

4. Masters, G. (2012), Enhancing the Quality of Teaching and Learning in Australian Schools, Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). Available at <>

5. Mawdsley, R. & Cumming, J. (2011), Certification of Teachers, Pre-Service Teacher Education, Tests and Legal Issues in Australia and the United States of America (US): Part A, Context, and US History, International Journal of Law & Education, 16(1), 23-40.

6. NCES (2014). Statistics released at

7. NCES (2016), The Condition of Education, NCES Website. Available at

8. NTC (2016), Support From The Start: A 50-State Review of Policies on New Educator Induction and Mentoring, NTC Website. Available at

9. Wixom, Micah Ann (2016), Mitigating Teacher Shortages: Teacher Leadership, Education Commission of the States, pp. 1-8.









Eleven professional standards for teachers

(Adapted from National Policy Board for Educational Administration and New Jersey Professional Standards for Teachers 2015)

The Learner and Learning (Standards 1-3)

Standard One: Learner Development


The teacher understands how learners grow and develop, recognizing that patterns of learning and development vary individually within and across the cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical areas, and designs and implements developmentally appropriate and challenging learning experiences.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher regularly assesses individual and group performance in order to design and modify instruction to meet learners’ needs in each area of development (cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical) and scaffolds the next level of development.

(2) The teacher creates developmentally appropriate instruction that takes into account individual learners’ strengths, interests, and needs and that enables each learner to advance and accelerate his/her learning.

(3) The teacher collaborates with families, communities, colleagues, and other professionals to promote learner growth and development.

ii. Essential Knowledge

(1) The teacher understands how learning occurs--how learners construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop disciplined thinking processes--and knows how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning.

(2) The teacher understands that each learner’s cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical development influences learning and knows how to make instructional decisions that build on learners’ strengths and needs.

(3) The teacher identifies readiness for learning, and understands how development in any one area may affect performance in others.

(4) The teacher understands the role and impact of language and culture in learning and knows how to modify instruction to make language comprehensible and instruction relevant, accessible, and challenging.

iii Critical Dispositions

(1) The teacher respects learners’ differing strengths and needs and is committed to using this information to further each learner’s development.

(2) The teacher is committed to using learners’ strengths as a basis for growth, and their misconceptions as opportunities for learning.

(3) The teacher takes responsibility for promoting learners’ growth and development.

(4) The teacher values the input and contributions of families, colleagues, and other professionals in understanding and supporting each learner’s development.

Standard Two: Learning Differences


The teacher uses understanding of individual differences and diverse cultures and communities to ensure inclusive learning environments that enable each learner to meet high standards.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher designs, adapts, and delivers instruction to address each student’s diverse learning strengths and needs and creates opportunities for students to demonstrate their learning in different ways.

(2) The teacher makes appropriate and timely provisions (e.g., pacing for individual rates of growth, task demands, communication, assessment, and response modes) for individual students with particular learning differences or needs.

(3) The teacher designs instruction to build on learners’ prior knowledge and experiences, allowing learners to accelerate as they demonstrate their understandings.

(4) The teacher brings multiple perspectives to the discussion of content, including attention to learners’ personal, family, and community experiences and cultural norms.

(5) The teacher incorporates tools of language development into planning and instruction, including strategies for making content accessible to English language learners and for evaluating and supporting their development of English proficiency.

(6) The teacher accesses resources, supports, and specialized assistance and services to meet particular learning differences or needs and participates in the design and implementation of the IEP, where appropriate through curriculum planning and curricular and instructional modifications, adaptations and specialized strategies and techniques, including the use of assistive technology.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher utilizes resources related to educational strategies for instruction and methods of teaching to accommodate individual differences and to employ positive behavioral intervention techniques for students with autism and other developmental disabilities.

(2) The teacher understands and identifies differences in approaches to learning and performance and knows how to design instruction that uses each learner’s strengths to promote growth.

(3) The teacher understands students with exceptional needs, including those associated with disabilities and giftedness, and knows how to use strategies and resources to address these needs.

(4) The teacher knows about second language acquisition processes and knows how to incorporate instructional strategies and resources to support language acquisition.

(5) The teacher understands that learners bring assets for learning based on their individual experiences, abilities, talents, prior learning, and peer and social group interactions, as well as language, culture, family, and community values.

(6) The teacher knows how to access information about the values of diverse cultures and communities and how to incorporate learners’ experiences, cultures, and community resources into instruction.

iii. Critical dispositions

(l) The teacher believes that all learners can achieve at high levels and persists in helping each learner reach his/her full potential.

(2) The teacher respects learners as individuals with differing personal and family backgrounds and various skills, abilities, perspectives, talents, and interests.

(3) The teacher makes learners feel valued and helps them learn to value each other.

(4) The teacher values diverse languages, dialects, and cultures and seeks to integrate them into his/her instructional practice to engage students in learning.


Standard Three: Learning Environments


The teacher works with others to create environments that support individual and collaborative learning, and that encourage positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self motivation.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher collaborates with learners, families, and colleagues to build a safe, positive learning climate of openness, mutual respect, support, and inquiry.

(2) The teacher develops learning experiences that engage learners in collaborative and self-directed learning and that extend learner interaction with ideas and people locally and globally.

(3) The teacher collaborates with learners and colleagues to develop shared values and expectations for respectful interactions, rigorous academic discussions, and individual and group responsibility for quality work.

(4) The teacher manages the learning environment to actively and equitably engage learners by organizing, allocating, and coordinating the resources of time, space, and learners’ attention.

(5) The teacher uses a variety of methods to engage learners in evaluating the learning environment and collaborates with learners to make appropriate adjustments.

(6) The teacher communicates verbally and nonverbally in ways that demonstrate respect for and responsiveness to the cultural backgrounds and differing perspectives learners bring to the learning environment.

(7) The teacher promotes responsible learner use of interactive technologies to extend the possibilities for learning locally and globally.

(8) The teacher intentionally builds learner capacity to collaborate in face-to-face and virtual environments through applying effective interpersonal communication skills.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands the relationship between motivation and engagement and knows how to design learning experiences using strategies that build learner self-direction and ownership of learning.

(2) The teacher knows how to help learners work productively and cooperatively with each other to achieve learning goals.

(3) The teacher knows how to collaborate with learners to establish and monitor elements of a safe and productive learning environment including norms, expectations, routines, and organizational structures.

(4) The teacher understands how learner diversity can affect communication and knows how to communicate effectively in differing environments.

(5) The teacher knows how to use technologies and how to guide learners to apply them in appropriate, safe, and effective ways.

(6) The teacher understands the relationship among harassment, intimidation, bullying, violence, and suicide and knows how and when to intervene.

iii. Critical disposition

(1) The teacher is committed to working with learners, colleagues, families, and communities to establish positive and supportive learning environments.

(2) The teacher values the role of learners in promoting each other’s learning and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate of learning.

(3) The teacher is committed to supporting learners as they participate in decision making, engage in exploration and invention, work collaboratively and independently, and engage in purposeful learning.

(4) The teacher seeks to foster respectful communication among all members of the learning community.

Content Knowledge (Standards 4-5)


Standard Four: Content Knowledge


The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches, particularly as they relate to the Common Core Standards and the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and creates learning experiences that make these aspects of the discipline accessible and meaningful for learners to assure mastery of the content.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher effectively uses multiple representations and explanations that capture key ideas in the discipline, guide learners through learning progressions, and promote each learner’s achievement of content standards.

(2) The teacher engages students in learning experiences in the discipline(s) that encourage learners to understand, question, and analyze ideas from diverse perspectives so that they master the content.

(3) The teacher engages learners in applying methods of inquiry and standards of evidence used in the discipline.

(4) The teacher stimulates learner reflection on prior content knowledge, links new concepts to familiar concepts, and makes connections to learners’ experiences.

(5) The teacher recognizes learner misconceptions in a discipline that interfere with learning, and creates experiences to build accurate conceptual understanding.

(6) The teacher evaluates and modifies instructional resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy for representing particular concepts in the discipline, and appropriateness for his/her learners.

(7) The teacher uses supplementary resources and technologies effectively to ensure accessibility and relevance for all learners.

(8) The teacher creates opportunities for students to learn, practice, and master academic language in their content.

(9) The teacher accesses school and/or district-based resources to evaluate the learner’s content knowledge.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) s/he teaches.

(2) The teacher understands common misconceptions in learning the discipline and how to guide learners to accurate conceptual understanding.

(3) The teacher knows and uses the academic language of the discipline and knows how to make it accessible to learners.

(4) The teacher knows how to integrate culturally relevant content to build on learners’ background knowledge.

(5) The teacher has a deep knowledge of student content standards and learning progressions in the discipline(s) s/he teaches.

(6) The teacher understands that literacy skills and processes are applicable in all content areas and helps students to develop the knowledge, skills and dispositions that enable them to construct meaning and make sense of the world through reading, writing, listening, speaking and viewing.

(7) The teacher understands the concepts inherent in numeracy to enable students to represent physical events, work with data, reason, communicate mathematically, and make connections within their respective content areas in order to solve problems.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher realizes that content knowledge is not a fixed body of facts but is complex, culturally situated, and ever evolving. S/he keeps abreast of new ideas and understandings in the field.

(2) The teacher appreciates multiple perspectives within the discipline and facilitates learners’ critical analysis of these perspectives.

(3) The teacher recognizes the potential of bias in his/her representation of the discipline and seeks to appropriately address problems of bias.

(4) The teacher is committed to work toward each learner’s mastery of disciplinary content and skills.

(5) The teacher shows enthusiasm for the discipline(s) they teach and is committed to making connections to everyday life.


Standard Five: Application Of Content


The teacher understands how to connect concepts and use differing perspectives to engage learners in critical thinking, creativity, and collaborative problem solving related to authentic local and global issues.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher develops and implements projects that guide learners in analyzing the complexities of an issue or question using perspectives from varied disciplines and cross-disciplinary skills (e.g., a water quality study that draws upon biology and chemistry to look at factual information and social studies to examine policy implications).

(2) The teacher engages learners in applying content knowledge to real world problems through the lens of interdisciplinary themes (e.g., financial literacy, environmental literacy).

(3) The teacher facilitates learners’ use of current tools and resources to maximize content learning in varied contexts.

(4) The teacher engages learners in questioning and challenging assumptions and approaches in order to foster innovation and problem solving in local and global contexts.

(5) The teacher develops learners’ communication skills in disciplinary and interdisciplinary contexts by creating meaningful opportunities to employ a variety of forms of communication that address varied audiences and purposes.

(6) The teacher engages learners in generating and evaluating new ideas and novel approaches, seeking inventive solutions to problems, and developing original work.

(7) The teacher facilitates learners’ ability to develop diverse social and cultural perspectives that expand their understanding of local and global issues and create novel approaches to solving problems.

(8) The teacher develops and implements supports for learner literacy development across content areas.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands the ways of knowing in his/her discipline, how it relates to other disciplinary approaches to inquiry, and the strengths and limitations of each approach in addressing problems, issues, and concerns.

(2) The teacher understands how current interdisciplinary themes (e.g., civic literacy, health literacy, global awareness) connect to the core subjects and knows how to weave those themes into meaningful learning experiences.

(3) The teacher understands the demands of accessing and managing information as well as how to evaluate issues of ethics and quality related to information and its use.

(4) The teacher understands how to use digital and interactive technologies for efficiently and effectively achieving specific learning goals.

(5) The teacher understands critical thinking processes and knows how to help learners develop high level questioning skills to promote their independent learning.

(6) The teacher understands communication modes and skills as vehicles for learning (e.g., information gathering and processing) across disciplines as well as vehicles for expressing learning.

(7) The teacher understands creative thinking processes and how to engage learners in producing original work.

(8) The teacher knows where and how to access resources to build global awareness and understanding, and how to integrate them into the curriculum.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher is constantly exploring how to use disciplinary knowledge as a lens to address local and global issues.

(2) The teacher values knowledge outside his/her own content area and how such knowledge enhances student learning.

(3) The teacher values flexible learning environments that encourage learner exploration, discovery, and expression across content areas.


Instructional Practice (Standards 6-8)


Standard Six: Assessment


The teacher understands and uses multiple methods of assessment to engage learners in their own growth, to monitor learner progress, and to guide the teacher’s and learner’s decision making.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher balances the use of formative and summative assessment as appropriate to support, verify, and document learning.

(2) The teacher designs assessments that match learning objectives with assessment methods and minimizes sources of bias that can distort assessment results.

(3) The teacher works independently and collaboratively to examine test and other performance data to understand each learner’s progress and to guide planning.

(4) The teacher engages learners in understanding and identifying quality work and provides them with effective descriptive feedback to guide their progress toward that work.

(5) The teacher engages learners in multiple ways of demonstrating knowledge and skill as part of the assessment process.

(6) The teacher models and structures processes that guide learners in examining their own thinking and learning as well as the performance of others.

(7) The teacher effectively uses multiple and appropriate types of assessment data to identify each student’s learning needs and to develop differentiated learning experiences.

(8) The teacher prepares all learners for the demands of particular assessment formats and makes appropriate accommodations in assessments or testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

(9) The teacher continually seeks appropriate ways to employ technology to support assessment practice both to engage learners more fully and to assess and address learner needs.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands the differences between formative and summative applications of assessment and knows how and when to use each.

(2) The teacher understands the range of types and multiple purposes of assessment and how to design, adapt, or select appropriate assessments to address specific learning goals and individual differences, and to minimize sources of bias.

(3) The teacher knows how to analyze assessment data to understand patterns and gaps in learning, to guide planning and instruction, and to provide meaningful feedback to all learners.

(4) The teacher knows when and how to engage learners in analyzing their own assessment results and in helping to set goals for their own learning.

(5) The teacher understands the positive impact of effective descriptive feedback for learners and knows a variety of strategies for communicating this feedback.

(6) The teacher knows when and how to evaluate and report learner progress against standards.

(7) The teacher understands how to prepare learners for assessments and how to make accommodations in assessments and testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher is committed to engaging learners actively in assessment processes and to developing each learner’s capacity to review and communicate about their own progress and learning.

(2) The teacher takes responsibility for aligning instruction and assessment with learning goals.

(3) The teacher is committed to providing timely and effective descriptive feedback to learners on their progress.

(4) The teacher is committed to using multiple types of assessment processes to support, verify, and document learning.

(5) The teacher is committed to making accommodations in assessments and testing conditions, especially for learners with disabilities and language learning needs.

(6) The teacher is committed to the ethical use of various assessments and assessment data to identify learner strengths and needs to promote learner growth.


Standard Seven: Planning for Instruction


The teacher plans instruction that supports every student in meeting rigorous learning goals by drawing upon knowledge of content areas, curriculum, cross-disciplinary skills, and pedagogy, as well as knowledge of learners and the community context.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher individually and collaboratively selects and creates learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals and content standards, and are relevant to learners.

(2) The teacher plans how to achieve each student’s learning goals, choosing appropriate strategies and accommodations, resources, and materials to differentiate instruction for individuals and groups of learners.

(3) The teacher develops appropriate sequencing of learning experiences and provides multiple ways to demonstrate knowledge and skill.

(4) The teacher plans for instruction based on formative and summative assessment data, prior learner knowledge, and learner interest.

(5) The teacher plans collaboratively with professionals who have specialized expertise (e.g., special educators, related service providers, language learning specialists, librarians, media specialists) to design and jointly deliver as appropriate learning experiences to meet unique learning needs.

(6) The teacher evaluates plans in relation to short- and long-range goals and systematically adjusts plans to meet each student’s learning needs and enhance learning.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands content and content standards and how these are organized in the curriculum.

(2) The teacher understands how integrating cross-disciplinary skills in instruction engages learners purposefully in applying content knowledge.

(3) The teacher understands learning theory, human development, cultural diversity, and individual differences and how these impact ongoing planning.

(4) The teacher understands the strengths and needs of individual learners and how to plan instruction that is responsive to these strengths and needs.

(5) The teacher knows a range of evidence-based instructional strategies, resources, and technological tools, including assistive technologies, and how to use them effectively to plan instruction that meets diverse learning needs.

(6) The teacher knows when and how to adjust plans based on assessment information and learner responses.

(7) The teacher knows when and how to access resources and collaborate with others to support student learning (e.g., special educators, related service providers, language learner specialists, librarians, media specialists, community organizations).

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher respects learners’ diverse strengths and needs and is committed to using this information to plan effective instruction.

(2) The teacher values planning as a collegial activity that takes into consideration the input of learners, colleagues, families, and the larger community.

(3) The teacher takes professional responsibility to use short- and long-term planning as a means of assuring student learning.

(4) The teacher believes that plans must always be open to adjustment and revision based on learner needs and changing circumstances.


Standard Eight: Instructional Strategies


The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage learners to develop deep understanding of content areas and their connections, and to build skills to apply knowledge in meaningful ways.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher uses appropriate strategies and resources to adapt instruction to the needs of individuals and groups of learners.

(2) The teacher continuously monitors student learning, engages learners in assessing their progress, and adjusts instruction in response to student learning needs.

(3) The teacher collaborates with learners to design and implement relevant learning experiences, identify their strengths, and access family and community resources to develop their areas of interest.

(4) The teacher varies his/her role in the instructional process (e.g., instructor, facilitator, coach, audience) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and the needs of learners.

(5) The teacher provides multiple models and representations of concepts and skills with opportunities for learners to demonstrate their knowledge through a variety of products and performances.

(6) The teacher engages all learners in developing higher order questioning skills and meta-cognitive processes.

(7) The teacher engages learners in using a range of learning skills and technology tools to access, interpret, evaluate, and apply information.

(8) The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to support and expand learners’ communication through speaking, listening, reading, writing, and other modes.

(9) The teacher asks questions to stimulate discussion that serves different purposes (e.g., probing for learner understanding, helping learners articulate their ideas and thinking processes, stimulating curiosity, and helping learners to question).

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands the cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g., critical and creative thinking, problem framing and problem solving, invention, memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated.

(2) The teacher knows how to apply a range of developmentally, culturally, and linguistically appropriate instructional strategies to achieve learning goals.

(3) The teacher knows when and how to use appropriate strategies to differentiate instruction and engage all learners in complex thinking and meaningful tasks.

(4) The teacher understands how multiple forms of communication (oral, written, nonverbal, digital, visual) convey ideas, foster self-expression, and build relationships.

(5) The teacher knows how to use a wide variety of resources, including human and technological, to engage students in learning.

(6) The teacher understands how content and skill development can be supported by media and technology and knows how to evaluate these resources for quality, accuracy, and effectiveness.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher is committed to deepening awareness and understanding the strengths and needs of diverse learners when planning and adjusting instruction.

(2) The teacher values the variety of ways people communicate and encourages learners to develop and use multiple forms of communication.

(3) The teacher is committed to exploring how the use of new and emerging technologies can support and promote student learning.

(4) The teacher values flexibility and reciprocity in the teaching process as necessary for adapting instruction to learner responses, ideas, and needs.

Professional Responsibility (Standards 9-11)


Standard Nine: Professional Learning


The teacher engages in ongoing individual and collaborative professional learning designed to impact practice in ways that lead to improved learning for each student, using evidence of student achievement, action research and best practice to expand a repertoire of skills, strategies, materials, assessments and ideas to increase student learning.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher engages in ongoing learning opportunities to develop knowledge and skills in order to provide all learners with engaging curriculum and learning experiences based on local and state standards.

(2) The teacher engages in meaningful and appropriate professional learning experiences aligned with his/her own needs and the needs of the learners, school, and system.

(3) Independently and in collaboration with colleagues, the teacher uses a variety of data (e.g., systematic observation, information about learners, research) to evaluate the outcomes of teaching and learning and to adapt planning and practice.

(4) The teacher actively seeks professional, community, and technological resources, within and outside the school, as supports for analysis, reflection, and problem-solving.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands and knows how to use a variety of self-assessment and problem-solving strategies to analyze and reflect on his/her practice and to plan for adaptations/adjustments.

(2) The teacher knows how to use learner data to analyze practice and differentiate instruction accordingly.

(3) The teacher knows how to build and implement a plan for professional growth directly aligned with his/her needs as a growing professional using feedback from teacher evaluations and observations, data on learner performance, and school- and system-wide priorities.

iii. Critical dispositions

1) The teacher takes responsibility for student learning and uses ongoing analysis and reflection to improve planning and practice.

(2) The teacher is committed to deepening understanding of his/her own frames of reference (e.g., culture, gender, language, abilities, ways of knowing), the potential biases in these frames, and their impact on expectations for and relationships with learners and their families.

(3) The teacher sees him/herself as a learner, continuously seeking opportunities to draw upon current education policy and research as sources of analysis and reflection to improve practice.

(4) The teacher understands the expectations of the profession including codes of ethics, professional standards of practice, and relevant law and policy.


Standard Ten: Leadership and Collaboration


The teacher seeks appropriate leadership roles and opportunities to take responsibility for student learning, to collaborate with learners, families, colleagues, other school professionals, and community members to ensure learner growth, and to advance the profession.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher takes an active role on the instructional team, giving and receiving feedback on practice, examining learner work, analyzing data from multiple sources, and sharing responsibility for decision making and accountability for each student’s learning.

(2) The teacher works with other school professionals to plan and jointly facilitate learning on how to meet diverse needs of learners.

(3) The teacher engages collaboratively in the schoolwide effort to build a shared vision and supportive culture, identify common goals, and monitor and evaluate progress toward those goals.

(4) The teacher works collaboratively with learners and their families to establish mutual expectations and ongoing communication to support learner development and achievement.

(5) Working with school colleagues, the teacher builds ongoing connections with community resources to enhance student learning and well being.

(6) The teacher engages in professional learning, contributes to the knowledge and skill of others, and works collaboratively to advance professional practice.

(7) The teacher uses technological tools and a variety of communication strategies to build local and global learning communities that engage learners, families, and colleagues.

(8) The teacher uses and generates meaningful research on education issues and policies.

(9) The teacher seeks appropriate opportunities to model effective practice for colleagues, to lead professional learning activities, and to serve in other leadership roles.

(10) The teacher advocates to meet the needs of learners, to strengthen the learning environment, and to enact system change.

(11) The teacher takes on leadership roles at the school, district, state, and/or national level and advocates for learners, the school, the community, and the profession.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands schools as organizations within a historical, cultural, political, and social context and knows how to work with others across the system to support learners.

(2) The teacher understands that alignment of family, school, and community spheres of influence enhances student learning and that discontinuity in these spheres of influence interferes with learning.

(3) The teacher knows how to work with other adults and has developed skills in collaborative interaction appropriate for both face-to-face and virtual contexts.

(4) The teacher knows how to contribute to a common culture that supports high expectations for student learning.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher actively shares responsibility for shaping and supporting the mission of his/her school as one of advocacy for learners and accountability for their success.

(2) The teacher respects families’ beliefs, norms, and expectations and seeks to work collaboratively with learners and families in setting and meeting challenging goals.

(3) The teacher takes initiative to grow and develop with colleagues through interactions that enhance practice and support student learning.

(4) The teacher takes responsibility for contributing to and advancing the profession.

(5) The teacher embraces the challenge of continuous improvement and change.


Standard Eleven: Ethical Practice


Teachers shall act in accordance with legal and ethical responsibilities and shall use integrity and fairness to promote the success of all students.

i. Performances

(1) The teacher reflects on his/her personal biases and accesses resources to deepen his/her own understanding of cultural, ethnic, gender, and learning differences to build stronger relationships and create more relevant learning experiences.

(2) The teacher advocates, models, and teaches safe, legal, and ethical use of information and technology including appropriate documentation of sources and respect for others in the use of social media.

(3) The teacher promotes aspects of students’ well-being by exercising the highest level of professional judgment, and working cooperatively and productively with colleagues and parents to provide a safe, healthy, and emotionally protective learning environment;

(4) The teacher maintains the confidentiality of information concerning students obtained in the proper course of the educational process and dispense such information only when prescribed or directed by federal and/or state statutes or accepted professional practice.

(5) The teacher maintains professional relationships with students and colleagues.

(6) The teacher provides access to various points of view without deliberate distortion of subject matter.

(7) The teacher fosters and maintains a school environment which protects students from sexually, physically, verbally, or emotionally harassing behavior by recognizing, understanding, and conducting themselves in a sound and professionally responsible manner.

ii. Essential knowledge

(1) The teacher understands how personal identity, worldview, and prior experience affect perceptions and expectations, and recognizes how they may bias behaviors and interactions with others.

(2) The teacher understands laws related to learners’ rights and teacher responsibilities (e.g., for educational equity, appropriate education for learners with disabilities, confidentiality, privacy, appropriate treatment of learners, reporting in situations related to possible child abuse, responding to harassment, intimidation, bullying and suicide.)

(3) The teacher understands his/her professional responsibilities as reflected in constitutional provisions, statutes, regulations, policies, and collective negotiations agreements.

(4) The teacher knows and understands strategies to foster professional and productive relationships with students and colleagues.

iii. Critical dispositions

(1) The teacher recognizes that an educator’s actions reflect on the status and substance of the profession.

(2) The teacher upholds the highest standards of professional conduct both as a practitioner in the classroom as well as an employee vested with the public trust.

(3) The teacher recognizes, respects and upholds the dignity and worth of students as individual human beings, and therefore dealing with them justly and considerately.

(4) The teacher recognizes their obligation to the profession of teaching and not engaging in any conduct contrary to sound professional practice and/or applicable statutes, regulations and policy.



                                                                                                             Nguyễn Hữu Quyết

                                                                               Với sự tham vấn của Frank A. Biofora@

Tóm tắt

Bài viết bàn luận những nét cơ bản về đào tạo và bồi dưỡng giáo viên tại Hoa Kỳ. Theo đó, báo cáo tập trung trả lời các câu hỏi cho 5 vấn đề sau: (1) Chương trình đào tạo giáo viên, bao gồm các yêu cầu đầu vào, chương trình đào tạo và các yêu cầu đầu ra; (2) Yêu cầu về chứng chỉ hành nghề; (3) Yêu cầu về tuyển dụng giáo viên; (4) Các chương trình hỗ trợ và bồi dưỡng giáo viên; và (5) Cơ sở đào tạo giáo viên và cơ quan quản lý chương trình đào đạo, cấp chứng chỉ hành nghề giáo viên. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy yêu cầu đầu vào đối với chương trình đào tạo giáo viện tại các tiểu bang của Hoa Kỳ là khá linh hoạt, nếu không muốn nói là thấp so với các nền giáo dục tiên tiến, song yêu cầu về đầu ra thì khá chặt chẽ, với chương trình đào tạo tập trung vào các môn học liên ngành, chuyên ngành hẹp và đặc biệt là các môn học về giáo dục và các kỹ năng sư phạm cũng như thời gian thực tập nghề nghiệp. Ngoài việc được đào tạo theo hướng thực hành đáp ứng yêu cầu đầu ra, chất lượng của sinh viên sư phạm còn được sát hạch qua các bài thi để cấp chứng chỉ hành nghề, và sau khi được tuyển dụng, các chương trình hỗ trợ, bồi dưỡng giáo viên thường xuyên được tăng cường nhằm hướng đến mục tiêu cuối cùng là đạt được 11 tiêu chuẩn nghề nghiệp đối với giáo viên. Với kết quả trên, báo cáo cho thấy những khác biệt mang tính hệ thống giữa Hoa Kỳ và Việt Nam về thực tiễn đào tạo và bồi dướng giáo viên để làm cơ sở xem xét đổi mới trong thời gian tới.

                             Nguyen Huu Quyet

                                                                                  In consultation with Frank A. Biafora[1]

[1] This paper was presented at the International Conference on “Training and Professional Development of School Teachers, Lecturers and Educational Managers” co-organized by Vinh University and ETEP, 3 Nov, 2017, Vinh City.


Nguyễn Hữu Quyết: CBGD Đại học Vinh, Học giả Fulbright tại ĐH South Florida St. Petersburg, số 140, Nam đại lộ 7, DAV 100, St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5016. Điện thoại: (+1)727-310-1675. Email:

@ Frank A. Biofora, Giáo sư, Hiệu trưởng Trường ĐH Khoa học xã hội và Nhân văn, ĐH South Florida St. Petersburg, số 140, Nam đại lộ 7, DAV 100, St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5016. Điện thoại: (+1) 917-514-6115. Email:

[1] Author’s interview with Jenifer Hartman, Ed.D., Assistant Professor, Educational Leadership Program, College of Education at University of South Florida St. Petersburg, dated 11 October, 2017.